Development of efficient brain imaging technologies combining a high spatiotemporal resolution and a large penetration depth is a key step for a better understanding of the neurovascular interface that emerges as a main factor in many neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, understanding the brain- neurovascular interface is crucial for targeting drugs to the brain. This review focuses on the advances in two complementary techniques: two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) and functional ultrasound imaging (fUSI). TPLSM has become the gold-standard for in vivoimaging of cell