Development of efficient brain imaging technologies combining a high spatiotemporal resolution and a large penetration depth is a key step for a better understanding of the neurovascular interface that emerges as a main factor in many neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, understanding the brain- neurovascular interface is crucial for targeting drugs to the brain. This review focuses on the advances in two complementary techniques: two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) and functional ultrasound imaging (fUSI). TPLSM has become the gold-standard for in vivoimaging of cellular dynamics and morphology together with cerebral blood flow. fUSi emerges nowadays as innovative imaging modality based on Doppler ultrasound, capable of recording -in real time- vascular brain activity over large scales (i.e. tens of cubic millimeters) at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution for such volumes (up to 10 µm pixel size at 20kHz). We conclude these two techniques combined provide an unprecedented window to understand the neurovascular interface.


Functional brain imaging, functional ultrasound imaging, two-photon imaging, neurovascular coupling, brain vasculature, cerebral blood volume, Doppler, calcium imaging